Having passed a test given by a “board” of “authoritative” individuals. Some board-certification exams test only a doctor’s memory on paper or by computer, some tests are oral (verbal questions and answers) and some tests are physical, in which examiners observe the doctor being tested, and involve treatment or examination of a patient. Board examinations also provide the ability to restrict the practice of a certain portion of medicine to doctors who “studied” to perform that particular branch of medicine and are “qualified” to do so. Unfortunately, these boards may be used as tools to restrain trade or limit other specialists. Some college students could pass the board-certification examination for various medical and surgical specialties if given the proper books. It is difficult for board examinations to completely test the competency of the individual plastic surgeon to practice that particular branch of surgery/medicine. It is difficult for a board certification test to check all of the abilities of the surgeon to cut or sew because so extensive a test would have examiner bias, and if enough doctors were to fail, they might complain or sue to pass. The same examiner simply cannot test all the applicants at one time under equal conditions to remove the bias of his/her individual prejudice. This explains the need for computer-graded, multiple-choice questions to determine who becomes your doctor. The same problems occur in the boards of dermatology and all other branches of medicine. Most importantly, how does one test for ethics.